Turkey, which considers the PKK a terrorist organization, also welcomed the agreement between Baghdad and the KRG. However, Kurdish nationalism has increased in other environments. In 1918, members of the Mukri tribe in the Mahabad region discussed with representatives of the British government a possible programme for an independent Kurdish state under the protection of the United Kingdom. Like Sharif Pasha, these people stressed their desire for autonomy and the desire for a peace agreement with the Armenians. [7] “The question is whether the agreement should really pave the way for the people of Sinjar, to take care of their own affairs, to go home and live in peace, or whether they should make Turkey happy,” Saeed said. Post-conflict phase (April 6, 1991-April 9, 2003): About 25,000 military personnel from nine countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and the United States – built safe havens for the Kurds in northern Iraq from 16 April 1991. Operation Provide Comfort was commanded by Lieutenant General John Shalikashvili of the United States. On April 8, 1991, the United States agreed to provide $10 million in humanitarian assistance to the Kurds. On 8 April 1991, the heads of state of the European Community (EC) declared their ready to provide humanitarian aid to the Kurds. On 10 April 1991, the United States warned the Iraqi government against military activities north of the 36th parallel and threatened to use military force if Iraq intervened in international aid efforts on behalf of the Kurds. Japan agreed on 11 April 1991 to provide $10 million in humanitarian aid to the Kurds, and Germany agreed to provide $262 million in humanitarian aid to the Kurds on 17 April 1991.

The U.S.-led operation, Provide Comfort, ended on July 24, 1991. In September 1995, Iran negotiated negotiations between the KDP and PUK representatives in Tehran. On 23 October 1996, in Ankara, Turkey, Britain, Turkey and the United States negotiated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the representatives of the KDP and the PUK. The Turkish Peace Control Force (PMF), composed mainly of 800 Iraqi Turkmen and Iraqi Assyrians, was established on 15 April 1997. PUK rebels attacked KDP rebels from 13 October 1997. On 14 October 1997, Britain, Turkey and the United States called for the withdrawal of PUK rebels from the KDP-controlled area. On 18 November 1997, KDP rebels recaptured territory conquered by the PUK. Political groups agreed on a ceasefire on 24 November 1997. In September 1998, the United States negotiated in Washington DC the signing of a power-sharing agreement between the KDP and the PUK. U.S.-led coalition forces invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003 and the coalition overthrew the government of President Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003. Between April 1991 and April 2003, about 5,000 people were killed by political violence. This system eventually collapsed due to differences between Sheikh Mahmoud and the British.

The British, by their financial support, had created a fairly powerful Kurdish leader.